Diagram of germinating bean seedling
Bean Plant Activities Kean University Continuing Education Implementing the Science Standards K-4Bean Plant Activities IntroductionBean plants provide a variety of experiences dealing with plants andthe plant kingdom. Monocots haveparallel veins in the leaves. Dicots have a veination pattern resemblinga net. Monocots generally grow from the baseGermination rate testing on the germination tableGermination is the process by which a plant grows from a seed. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.
In addition, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, such as the spores of hyphae from fungal spores, is also germination. Thus, in a general sense, germination can be thought of as anything expanding into greater being from a small existence or germ. In such seeds the epicotyl (i.e., part of embryonic axis between plumule and cotyledons) elongates pushing the plumule out of the soil.
All monocotyledons show hypogeal germination (Fig. 4.3, 4.4, 4.5). Among dicotyledons, gram, pea (Fig. 4.2), groundnut are some common examples of hypogeal germination.In monocotyledons (e.g., wheat, maize, rice, coconut) radicle and plumule come out by piercing the coleorrhiza and coleoptile respectively. The plumule grows upward and the first leaf comes out of the coleoptile.
The radicle forms the primary root which is soon replSeed germination begins when the seed takes in water rapidly, causing the inner layers to swell and split the seed coat and other coverings. The radicle then emerges and starts its downward growth into the soil. In the bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris) seed the hypocotyl elongates and straightens, raising the cotyledons above the ground. A garden is a wonderful place to learn about life and growth. A dry seed in the hand looks insignificant.
Yet inside is a plant-to-be. The embryo has all of the basic plant parts. As the seed begins to grow, its epicotyl or plumule will form the plant shoot. The cotyledons quickArticle Shared byThe process of seed germination includes the following five changes or steps.Such five changes or steps occurring during seed germination are: (1) Imbibition (2) Respiration (3) Effect of Light on Seed Germination(4) Mobilization of Reserves during Seed Germination and Role of Growth Regulators and (5) Development of Embryo Axis into Seedling.
(i) Imbibition:The first step in the seed germination is imbibition i.e. absorption of water by the dry seed. Imbibition results in swelling of the seed as the cellular constituents get rehydrated. The swelling takes place with a great force. It ruptures the seed coats and enables the radicle to come out in the form of primary root.Imbibition is accomplished due to the rehydration of structural and storage macromolecules, chiefly the cell wall and storage polysaccharides and proteins.
Many seeds contain additional polysaccharides.